What are they? And what are the benefits?
Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a powerful antioxidant both on its own and as a “recycler” of vitamin E and vitamin C. It can restore the antioxidant properties of these vitamins after they have neutralized free radicals. ALA also stimulates the body’s production of glutathione and aids in the absorption of coenzyme Q10 both important antioxidants. Because ALA is soluble in both water and fat, it can move into all parts of cells to deactivate free radicals. Supplemental ALA has been used for almost three decades in Europe to treat peripheral nerve degeneration and to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. It also helps to detoxify the liver of metal pollutants, block stress, and reduce blood cholesterol levels. It can be used with carnitine to provide an antiaging effect. ALA is known also as a metabolic antioxidant, because without it, cells cannot use sugar to produce energy. The body does not produce large amounts of ALA, but because it is found naturally in only a few foods, including spinach, broccoli, potatoes, brewer’s yeast, and organ meats, supplementation may be necessary.
The herb bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) A European relative of the American blueberry, contains natural antioxidants that keep capillary walls strong and flexible. They also help to maintain the flexibility of the walls off red blood cells and allow them to pass through the capillaries more freely. Everyone knows that vitamin C and E are good sources of antioxidants, but bilberry, which contains anthocyanidins phytochemicals, also acts as an antioxidant. It also helps to lower blood pressure, inhibit clot formation, and enhance blood supply to the nervous system. Studies indicate that anthocyanidins can provide up to 50 times the antioxidant protection of vitamin E and 10 times the protection of vitamin C. In addition, this herb protects the eye and may enhance vision; supports and strengthens collagen structures; inhibits the growth of bacteria; acts as an anti-inflammatory; and has anti-aging and anticarcinogenic effects. One studied that looked at the effects of bilberry on night vision found that vision was not improved with the amounts that are typically sold. Tests have shown that the compound glucoquinine, found in bilberry leaves, helps to lower blood sugar levels.
The herb burdock (Arctium lappa) was tested by researchers at the Chia Nan College of Pharmacy and Science in Taiwan for its antioxidant properties. They found that burdock is a powerful antioxidant, capable of scavenging hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radicals. It also showed a marked scavenging effect against hydroxyl radicals. The study showed also that burdock and vitamin E quench more free radicals when used in combination. Burdock also might protect against cancer by helping to control cell mutation .
Coenzyme Q10 is an antioxidant that is structurally similar to vitamin E. it plays a crucial role in the generation of cellular energy, is a significant immunologic stimulant, increases circulation, has antiaging effects, and is beneficial for the cardiovascular system. Also known as ubiquinone (from quinone, a type of coenzyme, and ubiquitous, because it exists everywhere in the body), coenzyme C10 is found in highest concentrations in the heart, followed by the liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas. Within the mitochondria, the cells’ energy-production centers, coenzyme Q10 helps to metabolize fats and carbohydrates. It also helps to maintain the flexibility of cell membranes.
Various research reports suggest that coenzyme Q10 also may be beneficial in treating cancer, AIDS, muscular dystrophy, allergies, gastric ulcers, myopathy, Parkinson’s disease, and deafness.
Natural sources of coenzyme Q10 include meats, peanuts, sardines, and spinach.
Found in the spice turmeric, the phytochemical curcumin has antioxidant properties that prevent the formation of the neutralize existing free radicals. It stops precancerous changes within DNA and interferes with enzymes necessary for cancer progression. Curcumin stops the oxidation of cholesterol, thus protecting against the formation of plaque in the arteries. In a study of chronic smokers, those who took curcumin excreted a substantially lower level of mutagens (substances that induce cells to mutate) in their urine, A reflection of how well the body is dealing with these cancer-causing substances.
Kirk human has been shown to be off benefit to some patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. It may also calm and overactive immune system and patience with ulcerative colitis, read using inflammation, redness, soreness. In one study, curcumin helped keep patients with ulcerative colitis from experiencing intestinal flare-ups. But it does not seem to be effective for other inflammatory condition such as psoriasis. Kirk human also blocks toxic compounds from reaching or reacting with body tissues, and may prevent cataracts. Curcumin should not be taken by anyone who has biliary track obstruction or is taking anticoagulants, as curcumin stimulates bile secretion and acts as a blood thinner
Flavonoids are especially potent antioxidants and metal chelators. They are the largest category of plants compounds called polyphenols. They are chemical compounds that plants produce to protect themselves from parasites, bacteria, and cell injuries. More than 4,000 chemically unique flavonoids are known; they occur in fruits, vegetables, spices, seeds, nuts, flowers, and bark. Wine (particularly red wine)
This versatile healing her also has antioxidant properties. The sulfhydryl (sulfur and hydrogen) compounds and garlic are potent chelators of toxic heavy metals, binding with them so that they can be exerted. These same compounds are effective protectants against oxidation and free radicals. Garlic acids in the detoxification or peroxides such as hydrogen peroxide and helps to prevent fats from being oxidized and deposited in tissues and arteries. Garlic also contains antioxidant nutrients such as vitamin A and C and selenium. Studies on aged garlic extract (AGE) have shown that the Ageing process substantially boosts garlics antioxidants potential. H protects against DNA damage, keeps blood vessels healthy, and guards again radiation and sunlight damage. According to research her a new Tristan nutritionist Robert I-San Lin, PH.D, aged garlic extract can prevent liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride, a common indoor pollutant and free radical generator. Overall, aged garlic supplements provide a greater concentration of garlic’s beneficial compounds.
It is particularly helpful to reduce oxidation associated with aging. If you’re worried about garlic breath putting a strain on your social life, choose an odourless and tasteless list form such as Kyolic aged garlic extract from Wakunaga or America. Aged garlic reduces but blood cholesterol levels, thus lowering the risk of heart attack; provides protection from heart disease by preventing cloths that can lead to heart attacks and strokes; and helps lower high blood pressure. Times – released garlic has been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels, and to lower fasting blood sugar levels to patients with type 2 diabetes.
Ginkgo biloba is an herb with powerful antioxidant effects in the brain, retina, and cardiovascular system. It is well known for its ability to enhance circulation, and a study reported in the journal of the American Medical Association showed that it has measurable effect on dementia in people with Alzheimer’s disease and people recovering from strokes. Other studies indicate that it can improve both long- and short-term memory and enhance concentration. Ginkgo biloba has also been used to treat hearing problems, impotence, and macular degeneration. Anyone who takes prescription anticoagulant (blood-thinning) medication or who uses over-the-counter painkillers regularly should consult a health care provider before using Ginkgo biloba, as the combination may result in internal bleeding.
Glutathione is a protein that is produced in the liver from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a powerful antioxidant that inhabits the formation of, and protects against cellular damage from, free radicals. It helps to defend the body against damage from cigarette smoking, exposed to radiation, cancer chemotherapy, and toxins such as alcohol. As a detoxifier of heavy metals and drugs, it aids in the treatment of blood and liver disorder. Glutathione Protects not only individual so but also the tissues of the arteries, brain, heart, immune cells, kidneys, lenses of the eyes, liver, lungs and skin against oxidant damage. It plays a role in preventing cancer, especially liver cancer, and many actually target carcinogens, make them water-soluble, and then help escort them from the body. It may also have an anti-aging affect. The rate at which we age is directly correlated with reduced concentration of glutathione in cellular fluids; as we grow older, glutathione levels drop, resulting in a decrease ability to deactivate free radicals. Glutathione can be taken in supplement form. The production of glutathione by the body can be boosted by taking supplemental dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), A hormone; N- acetylcysteine or L-cysteine; and L-methionine. Studies suggests that this may be a better way of raising glutathione levels than taking glutathione itself, but check with your healthcare professional if you have any hormonal problems.
See under Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins in this section.
Tea is the most commonly consumed beverage around the world after water. Green tea contains compounds known as polyphenols, including phytochemicals that have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and health – enhancing properties. Tests on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a particle type of polyphenol in green tea, have shown that it is able to penetrate the body’s cell and DNA from hydrogen peroxide, a potent free radical. Epidemiological studies have shown the green tea protects against cancer, l lowers cholesterol levels, and reduces the clotting tendency of the blood. Because green tea boost immune function and acts as an antiviral and ant-inflammatory agent, it may help prevent cancer. In one study, it was shown to prevent symptoms associated with cold and flu, and even reduce the number of these illnesses. It also shows promise as a weight-loss aid that can promote the burning of fats and help to regulate blood sugar and insulin levels. Instead of drinking green tea, a supplement containing known quantities off it can produce weight loss – especially as fat – and lower blood pressure and bad LDL cholesterol.
Green tea is simply the dry leaves of the tea plant. All green teas are from the species Camellia sinensis, but depending on the locale where they are grown and on the processing they can be quite different. Chinese teas are pretty dominant, and comprise about 90% off what is sold. There are numerous regional Chinese teas, the best-known being lung ching (dragon well).
Other keys from Japan and are equally good. Japanese green teas are of two basic types, sencha or gyokuro. Sencha is grown in the full sun, while gyokuro is shaded a few weeks before it is harvested. While there are many brands, the basic difference is that gyokuro makes a sweeter, darker green tea than sencha, which is somewhat grassy in flavour. It also costs over twice as much. Gyokuro is the source of the special handmade powdered tea used in the traditional tea ceremony. Green tea is not fermented and has more polyphenols than black tea. Black tea undergoes natural fermentation, which converts tennins, astringent photochemical, into more complex compounds. This fermentation process destroys some of black tea’s polyphenols, and it was once thought that it was Thomas rendered less effective as an antioxidant. Tests have shown, however, that both green and black tea contain about the same amount of antioxidant polyphenols, but that there are different combinations of antioxidants between black and green teas depending on the method of processing. Black tea lowers blood sugar and raises insulin levels after a meal. The polyphenolic content of black tea is thought to stimulate the pancreas to release insulin. Green tea does contain caffeine (15 to 25 mg per 3/4 cup), But it is less than in similar amounts of coffee (82 to 115 mg per 3/4 cup) or caffeinated carbonated beverages (38 to 46 mg per can). Those who have heart problems or sensitivity to caffeine, or are pregnant me want to limit their intake of caffeine. Green tea contains vitamin K, which can make anticoagulant medication less effective. Consult your health provider if you are using them.
Are unique amino acid, methionine neutralizes hydroxyl radicals, One of the most dangerous types of free radicals. Most often a bye – product off reactions between heavy metals and less toxic free radicals, hydroxyl radical can be formed also during strenuous exercise or exposure to high levels of radiation, and can damage any type of blood tissue.
The sulfur-containing amino acid cysteine is needed to produce the free radical fighter glutathione and to help maintain it at adequate levels in the cells. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a more stable form of cysteine that can be taken in supplement form.
NAC is used by the liver and the lymphocytes to detoxify chemicals and other poisons. It is a powerful detoxifier of alcohol, tobacco smoke, and environmental pollutants, all of which are immune suppressors. Taking supplemental NAC can boost the levels of protective enzymes in the body, thus slowing some of the cellular damage that is characteristic of again. NAC supplementation may also decrease both the frequency and duration of infectious diseases. It has been used in in the management of AIDS and chronic bronchitis.
People with diabetes should not take supplemental NAC without first consulting a health care provider, as it can interfere with the effectiveness of insulin. MDE BODY CRAFTERS INC
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
Also known as coenzyme 1, nicotinamide dinucleotide with high energy hydrogen, or NADH, is the spark that ignites energy production in the bodies cell. NADH’s high antioxidant capacity derives from its ability to reduce levels are substances. NADH plays a central role in DNA repair and maintenance, and in the cellular immune defense system. Studies report that NADH also can inhibit auto-oxidation off the Nero transmitter dopamine, which causes the release of toxic chemicals that may damage sensitive parts of the brain.
(OPCs) are naturally occurring substance is present in a variety of food and botanical sources. They are unique phytochemicals known as flavonoids that have powerful antioxidant capabilities.
OPC’s are highly waters to Louisville, so the body is able to absorb them rapidly. Clinical tests suggest that OPC’s may be as much as 50 times more potent than vitamin E and 20 times more potent than vitamin C in terms of bio-available antioxidant activity. What’s more, OPC’s work with the antioxidants glutathione to recycle and restore oxidized vitamin C, thoughts increase the vitamins effectiveness. Because they are able to cross the blood brain barrier, OPCs can protect the brain and spinal of nervous against free radical damage. In addition to their antioxidant activity. OPC’s protect the liver from damage caused by toxic dose is of acetaminophen, A non-prescription pain reliever; They strengthen and repair connected tissue, including that of the cardiovascular system; and they support the immune system and snow aging. They also moderate allergenic and inflammatory responses by review thing histamine production. OPC’s are found throughout plant life; However, the two main sources are Pinebark extract (Pycnogenol), produced from a French coastal pine tree, and grape seed extract, meat from the seeds of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera). Pycnogenol was the first source of OPC’s discovered, and the process for extracting it was patented in the 1950s. Pycnogenol is a trademarked name for pine bark extract, not a generic term for OPC’s from other sources.
Selenium is an essential trace mineral that functions as an antioxidant in partnership with vitamin E to protect tissues and cell membranes. Among other things, it increases antioxidant enzyme levels in cells. Selenium is also an integral component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (each molecule of this enzyme contains four atoms of selenium). Glutathione peroxidase targets harmful hydrogen peroxide in the body and converts it into water. It is a particularly important guardian of blood cells and of the heart, liver, and lungs.
Numerous plants contain selenium, including garlic, asparagus, and grains, but the levels depend on soil content, which varies from one geographic region to another.
Use caution when taking supplemental selenium. A maximum safe dose is 400 microgram (mcg) daily. Amounts higher than 1,000 micrograms (1 milligram) daily may be toxic.
The best natural sources of selenium include Brazil nuts (over 500 micrograms per ounce!), brown rice, seafood, eggs, tune, and buckwheat.
Extracted from the seeds of the herb milk thistle, Silymarin has been used for centuries to treat liver disease. The active ingredients in milk thistle are several types of flavonoids (powerful antioxidants), known collectively as silymarin.
Silymarin guards the liver from oxidative damage. It also protects the liver from toxins, drugs, and the effects of alcohol, and promotes the growth of new liver cells. In addition, silymarin increases levels of glutathione, super-oxide dismutase, and catalase, potent antioxidant enzymes that protect the liver. It also has been shown to reduce insulin resistance, which may help patients with diabetes. In one study, patients with diabetes who received silymarin experienced blood glucose control and better blood tests related to liver function.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme. SOD revitalizes cells and reduces the rate of cell destruction. It neutralizes the most common, and possibly the most dangerous, free radicals – superoxide radicals. Super oxide radicals instigate the breakdown of synovial fluid, the lubricant for the bodies joints. This leads to friction and, ultimately, inflammation. SOD works synergistically with the enzyme catalase, Which is abundant throughout the body. Catalase remove hydrogen peroxide by-products created by SOD reactions. S OD also aids in the bodies utilization of zinc, copper, and manganese. Its levels tend to decline with age, while free radical production increases. Its potential as an anti aging treatment is currently being explored.
Chemically speaking, there are two forms of this enzyme. The copper/zinc form (known as Cu / Zn SOD) exerts its antioxidant properties in the cytoplasm of cells. This is the watery fluid that surrounds all the other cellular components. Metabolism activity that takes place in the cytoplasm results in the production of free radicals, and Cu / Zn neutralizes them. The manganese form (Mn SOD) as active in the mitochondria, structures within cells where energy is produced. The production of cellular energy also leads to the creation of free radicals.
SOD occurs naturally and barley grass, broccoli, Brussells sprouts, cabbage, wheat grass, and most green plants. It is also bailable and supplement form. SOD supplements in pill form must be enteric coated – that is, Coated with protective substance that allows the pill to pass intact through the stomach acid into the small intestine to be absorbed. Cell Guard from Biotec Food Corporation and KAL SOD-3 from Nutracceutical International Corporation or Body Crafters‘ approved brands are good sources of SOD.
Vitamin A & Cartenoids
A class of phytochemicals, carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments found in yellow, red, green, and orange vegetables and fruits. They are a potent family of antioxidants that include alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin. Of the more than five hundred carotenoids found in nature, about fifty can be converted into vitamin A into body.
Carotenoids quench singlet oxygen, which is not, chemically speaking, a free radical, but is nevertheless highly reactive and can damage body molecules. Carotenoids also act as anticancer agents, Decreases the risk off cataracts and age related macular degeneration, and inhibit heart disease.
Studies have shown that carotenoids found in tomato juice (lycopene), carrots (alpha – and beta carotene), and spinach (lutein) May help to protect against cancer by reducing oxidative and other damage to DNA. Together, the antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q 10, vitamin C and vitamin E help conserve carotenoids in tissues. Another carotenoid, astaxanthin, when taken as a supplement, was shown to be well – absorbed and tempted to reduce damage to fat particles floating in the blood. This means that astaxanthin May be a beneficial supplement to reduce the risk of heart disease.
The body converts beta-carotene and to vitamin A as needed. Any leftover beta- carotene then acts as an antioxidant, breaking free radical change reactions and preventing the oxidation of cholesterol. It reduces the oxidation off DNA and disabled reactive oxygen species is molecules generated by exposure to sunlight and air pollution, preventing damage to eyes, lungs, and skin.
A resent laboratory study found that taking very high doses of supplemental beta-carotene alone (50, 000 international units of more daily)
May interfere with the normal control of cell division. It is best to take carotenoid complex containing a variety of carotenoids.
Natural sources of vitamin A include liver, whole milk, whole eggs, cheddar cheese, and beta-carotene foods. Natural sources of the carotenoids in general include sweet potatoes, carrots, spinach, corn, sweet peppers, spirulina, and Kale.
Vitamin C is a very powerful antioxidant that also recharges other antioxidants, such as vitamin E, to keep them potent. Its water solubility makes it an efficient free radical scavenger in body fluids. Some studies have shown that vitamin C is the first line up antioxidant defense and plasma against many different kinds of free radicals. The cells of the brain and spinal cord, which frequently incur free radical damage, can be protected by significant amounts of vitamin C. Best vitamin also guards against atherosclerosis by preventing damage to artery walls. Vitamin C acts as more potent free radical scavenger and presents off the phytochemical hesperidin.
Natural sources of vitamin C include citrus fruits, papaya, brussels sprouts, and strawberries.
Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that prevents the oxidation of lipids (fats). Fat oxidation has been implicated in the process that leads to atherosclerosis. Vitamin E fat-soluble and, since cell membranes are composed of lipids. It’s effectively prevents the cells protective coatings from becoming rancid as a result of the assault of free radicals. Vitamin E also improves oxygen utilization, Enhances immune response, please a role in the prevention of cataracts caused by free radical damage, and may reduce the risk of coronary artery disease.
The natural form of vitamin E (d-alpha-tocopherol) is it superior to the synthetic version (dl-alpha-tocopherol).
New evidence suggests that zinc is need to maintain normal blood concentrations of vitamin E. Selenium enhances vitamin E uptake.
For information regarding dosage and safely of vitamin E supplements, consult your local “Body crafters Health & Sport Supplements'” approved nutritionist.
Natural sources of vitamin E include nuts, soy beans, spinach, sunflower, seeds, asparagus, and sweet potatoes.
Zinc’s main antioxidant function is in the prevention of fat oxidation. In addition, it is a constituent of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Zinc is also needed for proper maintenance of vitamin E levels in the blood and aids in the absorption of vitamin A.