Glutamine is one of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids in dietary protein
Glutamine is commercially available as capsules or in packets as a powder form. It is sold as an isolated amino acids as well as being found in high levels in dietary meats and eggs. It is found in very high levels in both whey and casein protein.
How does it work?
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. Glutamine is produced in the muscles and is distributed by the blood to the organs that need it. Glutamine might help gut function, the immune system, and other essential processes in the body, especially in times of stress. It is also important for providing “fuel” (nitrogen and carbon) to many different cells in the body. Glutamine is needed to make other chemicals in the body such as other amino acids and glucose (sugar).
Glutamine is a very effective intestinal and immune system health compound, as these cells use glutamine as the preferred fuel source rather than glucose.
It is generally touted as a muscle builder, but has not been proven to enhance muscle building in healthy individuals
(Effective= 10/10) (Can be Effective 9/10) (Insufficient Evidence 8/10)
- Sickle cell disease (10/10)
- Athletic performance (9/10)
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease) (9/10)
- An inherited condition that can lead to kidney or bladder stones (cystinuria) (9/10)
- Infants weighing less than 2500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) (9/10)
- A group of inherited disorders that cause muscle weakness and muscle loss (muscular dystrophy) (9/10)
- Growth and development in premature infants (9/10)
- Diarrhea caused by radiation therapy (9/10)
- Burns (9/10)
- Critical illness (trauma) (9/10)
- Involuntary weight loss in people with HIV/AIDS (9/10)
- Recovery after surgery (9/10)
Structure and Properties
Glutamine is one of the conditionally essential amino acids, with the standard amino acid backbone and a 3-carbon side-chain with a ketone group on the furthest carbon from the amine group and culminating with a nitrogen on the end of the side-chain.
Glutamine is not highly soluble in an aqueous environment, and thus when used in intravenous infusion it tends to be bound to the amino acid Alanine as Alanyl-glutamine.
Side Effects & Safety
When taken by mouth: Glutamine is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in doses up to 40 grams daily. Side effects are generally mild and may include dizziness, heartburn, and stomach pain. Some people find the grittiness of glutamine in water to be unpleasant when taken by mouth.
Be cautious with this combination!
- Lactulose interacts with GLUTAMINELactulose helps decrease ammonia in the body. Glutamine is changed into ammonia in the body. Taking glutamine along with lactulose might decrease the effectiveness of lactulose.
- Medications for cancer (Chemotherapy) interacts with GLUTAMINEThere is some concern that glutamine might decrease the effectiveness of some medications for cancer. But it is too soon to know if this interaction occurs.
- Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants) interacts with GLUTAMINEMedications used to prevent seizures affect chemicals in the brain. Glutamine may also affect chemicals in the brain. By affecting chemicals in the brain, glutamine may decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.<br/><br/> Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.
OTHER NAME(S): Acide Glutamique, Acide Glutamique HCl, Acide L-(+)-2-Aminoglutaramique, Acide L-Glutamique, Acide L-Glutamique HCl, Alanyl-L-Glutamine Dipeptide, Éthyle Ester de Glutamine, Éthyle Ester de Glutamine HCl, GLN, Glutamate, Glutamic Acid, Glutamic Acid HCl, Glutamina, Glutaminate, Glutamine Ethyl Ester, Glutamine Ethyl Ester HCl, Glutamine Methyl Ester, Glutamine Peptides, Levoglutamide, Levoglutamine, L-(+)-2-Aminoglutaramic Acid, L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine, L-Glutamic Acid, L-Glutamic Acid HCl, L-Glutamic Acid Hydrochloride, L-Glutamic Acid 5-Amide, L-Glutamine, N-Acetyl-L-Glutamine, Peptides de Glutamine, Q, (S)-2,5-Diamino-5-oxopentanoic Acid.<br/><br/> source: WebMD & Examine.com